A high-level view of program inputs and outcomes measurement at your nonprofit
What are program inputs?
Usually, we refer to the things that go into a system as inputs. They are the things that, through the system’s process, are turned into outputs. Seems simple enough.
If we were making a cake from a box mix, for example, the inputs would be the mix itself, and the oil, eggs, and water the directions call for.
The problem for nonprofit organizations, however, is that in our world things are rarely that simple. Generally, when asked about program inputs, nonprofit practitioners give answers like, “staff and money.” While these two considerations are important, a response boiled down to just these two elements overlooks important considerations that could impact the effectiveness of a program and its chances of success.
An insight into this can be found if we change our example from making a box cake to something like standing on a dock and tossing a rock into a lake to create a splash in the water. Now if you think about it, it seems simple. We can all envision it. Rock in hand…arm cocked back. The toss, the arc, the splash.
So what would be the inputs in that scenario?
Consider multiple aspects and possibilities that affect ouctomes
Most people would say the rock and the person tossing it. But is it that simple?
The rock could be large or small. It could be round, hard, and smooth, and therefore aerodynamically sound, or it could be a jagged piece of a softer rock, whose many tiny facets and edges would create minuscule-but-measurable wind drag and shorten its flight.
And the person tossing the rock, what about him or her? Is he a tall guy with long arms for a better launch, or a shorter or younger person with less arm strength? Does this person have experience throwing a ball which might translate into a better toss, or is it someone who has hardly ever thrown a ball before?
What about technique? Was the rock tossed from a stationary, flat-footed position, or did the person use a baseball pitcher’s wind-up or even a cricket bowler’s running approach?
The list of possible inputs affecting the quality of the toss, the distance the rock traveled, and the size of the splash it made goes on. It could include the weather (the rock will travel less far in muggy, humid weather), the wind (wind blowing into the thrower or away?), the dock (was it steady giving the thrower a solid base, or wobbly and offering little support?), even the altitude (think of all the home runs hit in the thin air of Colorado’s mile-high Coors Field). While it is true that each of these variables has an infinitesimal individual impact upon the rock, they are all nonetheless all measurable, and combined could have a noticeable negative influence.
So it is with our programs. The inputs are generally far more complex than a simple combination of “staff and money.” There is the quality of the staff to be considered, their training, and even individuals’ suitability for a certain role. Consider location, not just in terms of geographical place, but also in terms of the facility itself and its physical appeal. Scheduling can also have an impact.
These are all inputs
We all want our programs to be the best they can be, to have the most beneficial results for those we serve. But in order to accomplish this, we have to make sure that all the parts of the system we offer are suited to the task at hand and working in combination as they ought to. One way to help ensure that this happens is to take a closer look at the full range of inputs that go into our efforts. Because the old saying is true, what goes in does come out — and there are often more things going in than we might have realized.